AIDS full Form: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
AIDS, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is a condition caused due to infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). At the inception of infection, one may not notice any symptoms or a slight influenza-like illness may be experienced by the infected person.
This introductory condition is followed by a dry spell of no symptoms as such. This infection progresses with interference with the immune system, weakening the entire immune system as such. The slight attacks of bacteria, virus, fungi, etc. Can turn into major diseases. The increased risk of developing these diseases may prove highly fatal.
एड्स फुल फॉर्म इन हिंदी – अक्वायर्ड इम्यून डेफिशियेंसी सिंड्रोम
AIDS Causes and Ways:
There are various ways through which HIV is spread. Some of the common ways of disease spread are unprotected sex (including anal and oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions are a great threat, use of hypodermic needles, from the mother to the child (through the placenta or breastfeed).
We must note that saliva or tears of a person do not transmit HIV. We must practice safe sex, to keep away from HIV. A fresh needle must be used for blood transfusion etc. Proper treatment must be provided to the infected. A baby can be saved from the attack of HIV by giving antiretroviral medication to both the mother and the child.
The biggest problem with AIDS is that it does not have any cure or vaccine. Antiretroviral treatment can just slow down the course of the disease, helping the infected to lead a normal expected life.
The doctors recommend the treatment to start as soon as the virus has been diagnosed. In the absence of treatment, the expected life after infection is about 11 years.
Impacts of AIDS:
There were about 1 million deaths due to HIV in 2016 alone and nearly 36.7 million people were living with the infection. Most of the infected people live in sub-Saharan Africa. Since the time the disease has been identified to 2017 about 35 million deaths have been reported due to the cause.
AIDS was first identified and recognized by the United States Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the year 1981 and the cause of the disease i.e. HIV was identified in the early part of that decade. The disease has had a long time effect and role as a disease as well as the cause of stratification of the population. The infection has also served as a great economic impact.
Many misconceptions about the disease have been held by the public for long. One must note that there is no risk of acquiring HIV through faeces, nasal secretions, saliva, sputum, sweat, tears, urine or vomit unless the above said are contaminated with the blood of the infected person.
It is also possible to be infected by more than one strain of the virus, the condition is known as HIV superinfection.
HIV is a retrovirus which affects the human immune system, directly or indirectly destroying the CD-4 T cells. HIV belongs to the family of genus Lentivirus, part of the family Retroviridae. Lentiviruses affect many species of mammals giving rise to long term illnesses.
The incubation period for the disease caused by Lentiviruses is quite long. Lentiviruses get transmitted as a single strand, positive sense, enveloped RNA viruses. Once the virus enters the host body, the single-stranded RNA is converted to a double-stranded DNA. Once the virus is integrated into the system it becomes latent, making it hard for the immune system to detect.
HIV is known to spread among the CD4+ T cells through two parallel routes: cell-free routes and the cell-to-cell spread. This shows that it employs hybrid spreading mechanisms.
In the cell-free spread mechanism, the virus particles start spreading from an infected CD4+T cell, enter the body fluid and then infect another CD4+ T cell. Under the cell-to-cell spread mechanism, the virus infects various cells by directly coming in contact with them.
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