RNA full form: Ribonucleic Acid
RNA and DNA are both chemical substances which are formed by sugar, phosphate and nucleotide base sequences. These differ in their properties due to which each of them carries equal relevance and perform specific functions.
RNA full form in Hindi: राइबोज़ न्यूक्लिक अम्ल
In our day to day life whenever we hear DNA or RNA, it is followed by thousands of questions. What is RNA? What role does it perform in the human body? What are the diseases caused by its deficiency?
Earlier studies reveal that RNA was considered as the genetic material. After careful study and analysis, it has been proved that RNA is unstable. RNA is catalytically active, it acts as enzymes in different metabolic processes.
It plays many vital roles. But its role as a genetic material is limited to some viruses and smaller organisms. The core reason behind this RNA’S instability. The genetic material should fulfill certain conditions to act as genetic material. These include :
- It should be able to generate its replica.
- It should be structurally stable.
- Providing scope for evolution.
- Must be capable of expressing as ‘Mendelian characters’.
Since DNA withstands the majority of these parameters it is a more suitable genetic material as compared to RNA.
Various experiments have been conducted by eminent scientist like Griffith, Hershey-Chase to prove DNA is the major genetic material. RNA cannot win the race of being the genetic material but it performs various other roles.
What role does RNA perform in the human body?
DNA dependent RNA polymerase is one of the enzyme involved in the protein synthesis. There are many different types of RNA. m RNA, t RNA, r RNA and many more.
Each different type of RNA plays a role in the process of protein synthesis within the human body. Deficiency of even one of the RNA can lead to the interruption in the process of protein synthesis.
Protein is the basic element which forms the human body. Protein act as enzymes, vitamins and take part in different metabolic activities. The role of proteins cannot be overlooked.
RNA of different types plays important role in protein synthesis. In the language of science, the entire process of protein synthesis can be divided into replication, transcription, and translation.
What are the diseases caused due to RNA deficiency?
|DISEASE||GENE / MUTATION||FUNCTION|
|Prader Willi syndrome||SNORD116||ribosome biogenesis|
|Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)||SMN2||splicing|
|Dyskeratosis congenita (X-linked)||DKC1||telomerase / translation|
|Dyskeratosis congenita (autosomal dominant)||TERC||telomerase|
|Dyskeratosis congenita (autosomal dominant)||TERT||telomerase|
|Diamond-Blackfan anemia||RPS19, RPS24||ribosome biogenesis|
|Shwachman-Diamond syndrome||SBDS||ribosome biogenesis|
|Treacher-Collins syndrome||TCOF1||ribosome biogenesis|
|Prostate cancer||SNHG5||ribosome biogenesis|
|Myotonic dystrophy, type 1 (DM1)||DMPK (RNA gain-of-function)||protein kinase|
|Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2)||ZNF9 (RNA gain-of-function)||RNA binding|
|Spinocerebellar ataxia 8 (SCA8)||ATXN8 / ATXN8OS (RNA gain-of-function)||unknown / noncoding RNA|